ANAHEI Research Academy

Registration to GLOSEARCH gives access to ANAHEI Research Academy. Participants will receive a certificate from ANAHEI & USF & Hao Sen University if they attend all three sessions. If you wish to ONLY participate in ANAHEI Research Academy please click here

Session 1: Introduction to Partial Least Squares – Structural Equation Modeling
(PLS-SEM) Using SmartPLS and WarpPLS software packages

SEM is a statistical approach to analyze a hypothetical framework simultaneously. It allows a researcher to test and develop theories, and to test the relationships between latent variables on the conceptual model. There are two types of SEM; the covariance-based technique (CB-SEM) and the variance-based or partial least squares SEM (PLS-SEM). CB-SEM is confirmatory in nature, whereas PLS-SEM can handle theory development and prediction. The PLS-SEM is a variance-based approach and aims to maximize the explained variance of the dependent latent constructs; whereas the CB-SEM aims to reproduce the theoretical covariance matrix. Therefore the PLS-SEM is preferred when the researcher wants to predict the construct and identify a relationship between them. In addition, PLS-SEM can handle more complex model including formative, composite and reflective constructs. PLS-SEM has been applied in many studies in marketing, business, strategic management, and social science areas in recent years. However, a few numbers of tourism and hospitality researches have used this useful and powerful method. Most of the tourism studies were interested in traditional CB-SEM rather than PLS-SEM. Therefore, a PLS-SEM workshop can be very significant for tourism and hospitality researchers.
Outline of introduction talk on PLS-SEM:

1. Basics of SEM

2. Formative, composite, and Reflective Measurement Model

3. Measurement Model Evaluation and Reporting

4.1 Reflective Constructs

(a) Reliability
(b)Convergent validity
(c) Discriminant validity

4.2 Formative and Composite Constructs

(a) Redundancy analysis for formative and nomological assessment for composite
(b) Outer weight
(c) VIF

4.3 Structural Model Analysis & Evaluation

5. Assessment of structural model

(a) R2
(b) Path coefficient
(c) Effect size
(d) Q2
(e) Linear and non-linear models


Session 2:

Mediator – Moderator Using PLS-SEM; WarpPLS 6.0 and SmartPLS 3.2.7 Software Packages

Many studies in management, psychology, social science, including hospitality and tourism rely on mediating and moderating variables. Mediating variables are behavioral, psychological, or social constructs that transmit the effect of one variable to another variable. Mediation is one way that a researcher can explain the process or mechanism by which one variable affects another. However, moderating variable are those which affect the strength or nature of the relationship between two other variables.

This session aims to explain the concepts and theories behind mediator and moderator and describes various forms of simple and complex meditors, moderators. Different methods to assess mediators and moderators will be discussed in this session. These assessments will be conducted in the context of partial least squares- structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using two powerful software packages namely; WarpPLS 6.0 and SmartPLS 3.2.7.


  1. Introduce the simple mediation effect
  2. Review different methods of assessment of mediation effect
  3. Assessment of mediator using WarpPLS 6.0
  4. Assessment of mediator using SmartPLS 3.2.7


  1. Introduce Moderation effect
  2. Interaction effect and Multi Group Analysis (MGA)
  3. Different methods to assess Interaction effect
  4. MGA using WarpPLS 6.0 and SmartPLS 3.2.7

(a) Different methods of invariance measurement testing
(b) Non-parametric MGA methods (Henseler’s MGA, Permutation,…)

5. Full Latent Growth Assessment as an alternative to moderator using WarpPLS 6.0